Stanton et al. collected saliva samples from 183 study participants before and after the results of the 2008 presidential election were announced. The results show that male Barack Obama voters (winners) had stable post-outcome testosterone levels, whereas testosterone levels dropped in male John McCain and Robert Barr (Libertarian candidate) voters (losers). There were no significant effects in female voters. These results were consistent with earlier studies showing testosterone decreases in male supporters of an athletic team after it loses a game.