Research has demonstrated that the allocation of attention is controlled by two partially segregated networks of brain areas. The top-down attention system, which recruits parts of the intraparietal and superior frontal cortices, is specialized for selecting stimuli on the basis of cognitive factors, such as current goals and expectations. The bottom-up attention system, by contrast, recruits the temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortices, and is involved in processing stimuli on the basis of stimulus-driven factors, such as physical salience and novelty.Here is their abstract:
Recent evidence has suggested that reward modulates bottom-up and top-down attentional selection and that this effect persists within the same task even when reward is no longer offered. It remains unclear whether reward effects transfer across tasks, especially those engaging different modes of attention. We directly investigated whether reward-based contingency learned in a bottom-up search task was transferred to a subsequent top-down search task, and probed the nature of the transfer mechanism. Results showed that a reward-related benefit established in a pop-out-search task was transferred to a conjunction-search task, increasing participants’ efficiency at searching for targets previously associated with a higher level of reward. Reward history influenced search efficiency by enhancing both target salience and distractor filtering, depending on whether the target and distractors shared a critical feature. These results provide evidence for reward-based transfer between different modes of attention and strongly suggest that an integrated priority map based on reward information guides both top-down and bottom-up attention.