-Event-related potentials were recorded during two go/no-go task with subliminal primes
-Subliminal primes related to general concepts of action, inaction, or were controls.
-Inaction/action primes strengthened/weakened inhibitory control mechanisms (ICMs).
-The primes had never been consciously associated with task responses or goals.
-This is the first demonstration that ICMs can operate completely unconsciously.
Although robust evidence indicates that action initiation can occur unconsciously and unintentionally, the literature on action inhibition suggests that inhibition requires both conscious thought and intentionality. In prior research demonstrating automatic inhibition in response to unconsciously processed stimuli, the unconscious stimuli had previously been consciously associated with an inhibitory response within the context of the experiment, and participants had consciously formed a goal to activate inhibition processes when presented with the stimuli (because task instructions required participants to engage in inhibition when the stimuli occurred). Therefore, prior work suggests that some amount of conscious thought and intentionality are required for inhibitory control. In the present research, we recorded event-related potentials during two go/no-go experiments in which participants were subliminally primed with general action/inaction concepts that had never been consciously associated with task-specific responses. We provide the first demonstration that inhibitory control processes can be modulated completely unconsciously and unintentionally.