Which regions of the cerebral cortex are the origin of descending commands that influence internal organs? We used transneuronal transport of rabies virus in monkeys and rats to identify regions of cerebral cortex that have multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. In rats, we also examined multisynaptic connections with the kidney. In monkeys, the cortical influence over the adrenal medulla originates from 3 distinct networks that are involved in movement, cognition, and affect. Each of these networks has a human equivalent. The largest influence originates from a motor network that includes all 7 motor areas in the frontal lobe. These motor areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control, from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. The motor areas provide a link between body movement and the modulation of stress. The cognitive and affective networks are located in regions of cingulate cortex. They provide a link between how we think and feel and the function of the adrenal medulla. Together, the 3 networks can mediate the effects of stress and depression on organ function and provide a concrete neural substrate for some psychosomatic illnesses. In rats, cortical influences over the adrenal medulla and the kidney originate mainly from 2 motor areas and adjacent somatosensory cortex. The cognitive and affective networks, present in monkeys, are largely absent in rats. Thus, nonhuman primate research is essential to understand the neural substrate that links cognition and affect to the function of internal organs.
Friday, January 17, 2020
The Mind-Body problem - How our brain talks to stress systems in our body.
Dun et al. use a neuronal pathway tracking technique to show how different brain areas link to the adrenal medulla to connect its activity (secretion of epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine) to how we think and feel.: